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Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory

Disease Specific Specimen Selection and Collection

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A

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Abortion, Infectious BovinePlacenta with cotyledons.
Uterine discharge on swab.
Fresh whole fetus.
Fetal stomach contents.
Fetal lung and liver.
Brucella abortus
Campylobacter species
Abortion, MycoticPlacenta with cotyledons.
Fetal stomach content.
Aspergillus species
Mortierella wolfii
Actinobacillosis
Wooden Tongue
Pus from abscess.Actinobacillus lignieresii
Arcanobacterium InfectionFresh material from excised abscess on swab or in syringe.Arcanobacterium pyogenes
Corynebacterium spp.
Actinomycosis,
Bovine Lumpy Jaw
Fresh material from excised abscess on swab or in syringe.Actinomyces bovis
Actinomycosis, CanineBiopsy or fresh material
Tracheal wash
Thoracocentesis
Actinomyces viscosus
Anaerobic BacteriaBiopsies & exudates in sterile syringe with plugged needle.
Anaerobic transport swab.
Bacteriodes species
Fusobacterium spp.
Peptococcus sp.
Peptostreptococcus sp.
Eubacterium sp.
Propionibbacterium sp.
AnthraxAlert Lab! Blood soaked umbilical tape or cotton swabs soaked in extruded blood or blood taken from a superficial ear vein in acute or paracute cases. In swine, send lymph nodes.Bacillus anthracis
ArthritisEntire joint in smaller animals. Joint swabs in transport media or joint fluid in sterile syringe.Streptococcus
Arcanobacterium pyogenes
Haemophilus
Histophilus
Erysipelothrix
Staphylococcus
Mycoplasma
Aspergillosis, AvianLung and air sacs.
Tracheal wash.
Aspergillus fumigatus
Aspergillus spp.
Atrophic Rhinitis of SwineClean external nares with alcohol. Swab 1/2 distance into cavity.
Entire nose if animal is sacrificed.
Bordetella bronchiseptica
Pasteurella multocida

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B

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Bacillary hemoglobinuria RedwaterPortion of liver with infarct.Clostridium haemolyticum
Bacterial Balanoposthitis and VulvitisPus collected from several animals on swabs and placed in transport media.Corynebacterium renale
C. pilosum
BacteriuriaUrine or swab – prefer urine sample.Escherichia coli
Proteus
Other coliforms
Streptococcus spp.
Many Gram + and Gram - bacteria
Big HeadSection of tissue with lesion.Clostridium novyi
Clostridium sordelli
Clostridium chauvoei (rare)
Black Disease
Infectious Necrotic Hepatitis
Section of liver with necrotic lesionClostridium novyi type B
BlacklegSection of muscle with lesion.Clostridium chauvoei
Clostridium novyi
Clostridium septicum
BlastomycosisTranstracheal wash, biopsy or abscess contents from skin.Blastomyces dermatitidis
BotulismFood suspected of containing toxin.
Section of fresh intestine, tied off.
Large section of liver.
Clostridium botulinum
Brucellosis, Bovine
Bang's Disease
Placenta & aborted fetus.
Lung, Liver, Kidney of fetus.
Milk.
Semen and testes.
Brucella abortus
Brucellosis, CanineFemales: fetus (lung, liver), placenta & vaginal swabs.
Males: semen, testes, epididymis, prostatic fluid.
Brucella canis
Brucellosis, CaprinePlacenta & fetus.Brucella melitensis
Brucellosis, Ovine
Ovine Epididymitis
Aseptically collected semen
Fetal cotyledons & fetus.
Testicle & epididymis.
Brucella ovis
Brucellosis, PorcineFetus, fetal stomach contents, testicles.Brucella suis
BursitisEntire joint in smaller animals.
Joint swabs in transport media.
Joint fluid.
Streptococcus
Corynebacterium
Haemophilus
Mycoplasma

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C

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Campylobacteriosis,
Bovine Genital
Fetus, entire.
Cervical mucous.
Preputial washing.
Semen sample.
Campylobacter fetus ssp. venerealis
Campylobacteriosis,
Canine Intestinal
Fresh rectal / fecal swabs in transport media.Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacteriosis, FelineFresh rectal / fecal swabs in transport media.Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacteriosis,
Ovine Genital (OGS)
Fresh whole fetus & fetal stomach contents.Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus
Candidiasis
Candidosis
Moniliasis
Thrush
Deep scraping of affected area below the pseudomembrane or other extraneous material.Candidia albicans
Candidia spp.
Canine Respiratory DiseaseTranstracheal wash.
Transthoracic aspirate.
Throat swab.
Lung tissue.
Bordetella species
Pasteurella multocida
Pasteurella spp.
Pseudomonas spp.
Coliforms
Circling DiseaseBrain stemListeria spp.
CoccidioidomycosisExudate of nodules.
Biopsies of liver, spleen and lymph nodes.
Tissues.
Transthoracic aspirate.
Coccidioides imitis
Colibacillosis
Bovine and Porcine
Tied off intestine and content.
Request pilus antigen testing.
Escherichia coli (K88, K99, 987P)
Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)Swabs from cervix, urethra & clitoral fossa of mare.
Swabs from urethral fossa & penile sheath of male.
Notify Laboratory Before Collecting Samples. Samples will be sent to certified lab out of state, and must meet certain specifications.
Taylorella equigenitalis
Contagious Foot Rot of Sheep
Foot Rot of Sheep
Infectious Foot Rot of Sheep
Ovine Digital Dermatitis
Swab from center of lesion after trimming hoof.
Requires anaerobic transport media.
Dichlobacter nodosus
Contagious Pleuropneumonia of SwinePortion of lung.Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae
Coryza (Turkey)
Rhinotracheitis (Chickens)
Trachea
Lung
Bordetella avium
CryptococcosisNasal passage material in paranasal form.
Material from granulomatous lesions in subcutaneous form.
Cerebrospinal fluid.
Milk in cryptococcal mastitis.
Portions of affected tissues.
Cryptococcus neoformans
CystitisFresh urine.Escherichia coli
Proteus spp.
Coliforms
Streptococcus spp.

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D

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
DermatitisClean surface to remove dirt. Swab of lesions in transport media.
Sections of skin.
Plucked hair.
Staphylococcus hyicus, aureus, intermedius
Pseudomonas spp.
Streptococcus spp.
Fungi (Dermatophytes)
DermatomycosisPlucked hair and skin scrapings sent dry in envelope. Sections of skin.Microsporum spp.
Trichophyton spp.
Dermatophilosis
(Streptothricosis)
Scabs, crust & plucked hair.
Skin biopsy after scab removal.
Dermatophilus congolensis
Diphtheria, CalfAnaerobic swab of ulcers in trachea.
Anaerobic swab of diphtheric membrane.
Fusobacterium necrophorum

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E

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Edema Disease
Gut Edema of Porcine
Tied off affected intestine.
Request pilus antigen testing
Can be sent to another lab for serotyping.
Escherichia coli
Enteric DiseaseTied off affected section of intestine.
Swabs from intestinal sections.
Escherichia coli
Other coliforms
Salmonella spp.
Enteric Infections of Young LambsTies off affected section of intestine for aerobic & anaerobic cultures.
Aerobic & anaerobic swabs.
Clostirida spp.
Coliforms
Enterotoxemia
Clostridial enterotoxemia
20-30 ml of ileal content in vial or tied off intestine.
Freeze and transport rapidly to laboratory.
Clostridium perfringens
Erysipelas, Swine
Diamond Skin Disease
Acute form: Heart blood, portion of kidney, spleen & liver.
Arthritic & Cardiac form: Swabs from affected joints, tissues, heart valves.
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Exudative Epidermitis
Greasy Pig Disease
Clean skin with soap, water and alcohol.
Scrape lesions and send to lab on swab in transport media or in sterile syringe.
Staphylococcus hyicus

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F

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Fistulas WithersFresh material from opened abscess or lymph node.
Swab from excised abscess.
Brucella abortus
Actinomyces bovis
Foot abscess of SheepFresh pus.
Anaerobic swabs if possible.
Arcanobacterium pyogenes
Fusobacterium necrophorum
Bacteriodes spp.
Foot Rot of Cattle
Interdigital Necrobacillosis
Fresh pus.
Anaerobic swabs if possible.
Fusobacterium necrophorum
Fowl Cholera
Avian Cholera
Pus from joints and other tissues.
Lung Liver, intestine.
Bone marrow.
Pasteurella multocida
Fowl TyphoidEgg and / or egg products.
Lung, liver, spleen, kidney, intestine.
Salmonella gallinarium Salmonella spp.

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G

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Gangrenous MastitisUsually mammary tissue.
Anaerobic swab from affected quarter.
Clostridium perfringens
Clostridia spp.
Gas GangreneAffected TissueClostridium perfringens
GeotrichosisRarely diagnosed in living anima.
Ear swab in canine.
Milk sample in cattle.
Tissue & scraping from lesions in dead animals.
Geotrichium candidium
GlandersNotify Lab in Advance!
Nasal discharge swab.
Swab of cutaneous lesion.
Lung & lymph node.
Nodules.
Pus from Ulcers.
Burkholderia mallei
Glasser's DiseasePreferably a live, sick pig.
Swabs for culture from various serous membranes and meninges.
Haemophilus parasuis
Gutteral Pouch InfectionNasal discharge swab, pus, biopsy of lesion for aerobic & anaerobic culture.Streptococcus spp.
Pasteurella spp.
Fusobacterium spp.
Bacteroides spp.
Other anaerobic bacteria
Fungal species

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H

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Haemophilus (Histophilus) Infection of CattleBrain, lung, joints or joint fluid.Histophilus somni
Hepatitis, Infectious Necrotic Black DiseasePortion of necrotic liver lesion.Clostridium novyii
HistoplasmosisUrine sediment, excised lymph nodes or biopsy, liver biopsy, scrapings from ulcer base, bone marrow aspirate or peripheral blood buffy coat.
Necropsy: Lung, liver, spleen, intestine, skin & any granulomas.
Histoplasma capsulatum

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I

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
IcterohemoglobinuriaLiver with lesions.Clostridium haemolyticum
Infectious hemoglobinuriaLiver with lesions.Clostridium haemolyticum
Infectious necrotic hepatitisLiver with lesions.Clostridium novyii type B
InfertilityReproductive tract swabs.
Semen, vaginal mucous.
Preputial washings.
Brucella abortus
Brucella canis
Brucella spp.
Campylobacter spp.
Streptococcus spp.
Many other bacteria

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J

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Johne's DiseaseRequires 8 – 16 Weeks
Dead animal: Tissue from ileocecal junction & adjacent lymph nodes.
Live animal: Rectally collected fecal sample. 
Intestinal scraping.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

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K

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Kennel CoughTranstracheal wash
Transthoracic aspirate
Throat swab
Lung tissue
Bordetella bronchiseptica
Keratoconjunctivitis
Infectious Bovine Pinkeye
Infectious Ophthalmia
Infectious keratitis
Conjunctival swabs in transport media.Moraxella bovis

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L

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Lamb dysentery20-30 ml of ileal content in vial or tied off intestine.
Freeze & transport rapidly to laboratory.
Clostridium perfringens
Laryngotracheitis,
Infectious Canine
Kennel Cough
Tracheobronchitis
Nasal & tracheal swabs.
Tracheal wash.
Bordetella bronchiseptica
Pasteurella multocida
Other bacteria
LeptospirosisCan be demonstrated in fetal pericardial fluids.
Sometimes seen in urine.
Darkfield performed, not cultured.
Leptospira spp.
Listeriosis
Circling Disease
Listerellosis
Neural form: Brain stem.
Visceral form: Liver.
Abortion form: Fetus & placenta.
Listeria monocytogenes
Liver Abscesses, Bovine
Bovine Hepatic Necrobacillosis
Culture rarely attempted.
Liver with visible abscesses.
Fusobacterium necrophorum
Lumpy JawFresh material from excised abscess on swab or in syringe.Arcanobacterium pyogenes
Actinomyces bovis
Lymphadenitis, Caseous PseudotuberculosisFresh pus on swabs from several lesions.
Abscess tissue & lymph node.
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
Lymphadenitis, Streptoccal
Jowl Abscesses
Cervical Lymphadenitis of Swine
Cervical Abscesses of Swine
Fresh pus from an excised lymph node.Streptococcus species
Lymphangitis, UlcerativePus on swab from excised nodule.Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

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M

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Malignant EdemaDead animal: Muscle
Live animal: Fluid or material from lesion in a syringe.
Clostridium septicum
MastitisAseptically collected milk samples in sterile screw top containers.Staphlococcus spp.
Streptococcus spp.
Coliforms
Mycoplasma spp.
Many other bacteria
MeningitisCerebral spinal fluid.
Brain.
Meningeal Swab.
Streptococcus spp.
Streptococcus suis
Haemophilus somnus
Cryptococcus neoformans
Listeria monocytogenes
Mycoplasma InfectionsDepends upon disease and animal species. 
See section on Mycoplasma.
Mycoplasma spp.

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N

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Nasal Aspergillosis
Canine Nasal Aspergillosis
Swabs from nasal cavity & curretted material from lesion.Aspergillus species
Naval Ill
Neonatal Septicemia
Depends upon duration of infection.
Affected tissue or joint.
Arcanobacterium pyogenes
Streptococcus spp.
Corynebacterium spp.
Necrobacillosis of the liverAffected liver tissue.Fusobacterium necrophorum
Neonatal diarrheaSee Enteric DiseaseEscherichia coli
NocardiosisFresh pus & exudate from lesion. Excision may be necessary.
Thoracocentesis or tracheal wash.
Milk sample from affected quarter.
Nocardia asteroids

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O

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Ornithosis (Avian)Fecal sample
Air sac tissue
Chlamydia psittaci
Otitis Externa, Canine
Otitis Externa, Feline
Ear swabs for bacterial & fungal culture.Proteus species
Pseudomonas spp.
Staphylococcus spp.
Streptococcus spp,
Coliforms
Yeasts (Pityrosporum spp.)
Overeating DiseaseTied off section of intestine.Clostridium perfringens

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P

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Paratuberculosis
Johne's Disease
See Johne's DiseaseMycobacterium paratuberculosis
Pasteurellosis
Bovine Pneumonic
Shipping Fever
Bovine Respiratory Disease
Nasal swab in Transport media.
Transtracheal washings.
Portion of affected lung.
Pasteurella multocida
Mannheimia haemolytica
Histophilus somni
Arcanobacterium pyogenes
Pasteurellosis, Ovine Pneumonic 
Enzootic Pneumonia of Sheep
Affected section of lung.Mannheimia haemolytica
Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae
PinkeyeEye swab
Eyeball
Moraxella bovis
PlagueNotify Lab Before Sending Samples
Exudate from abscess
Swollen lymph node
Yersinia pestis
Pneumonia, Swine Enzootic
Virus Pneumonia of Pigs
Mycoplasma Pneumonia of Swine
VPP
Portions of affected lung.
Sick or recently dead pigs.
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
Polyarthritis, Chlamydial
Transmissible Serositis
Joints & joint fluids.Chlamydia psittaci
PsittacosisSee OrnithosisChlamydia psittaci
Proliferative ileitisPortions of affected intestine including spiral colon & ileum.Lawsonia intercellularis
Poll evilFresh material from newly opened abscess.
Fresh material from excised abscess.
Brucella abortus
Arcanobacterium pyogenes
Pulpy kidney diseaseAffected kidney tissue.Clostridium perfringens
Pyelonephritis, BovineMidstream sample of urine.
Portion of affected kidney, ureter, bladder & urethra.
Corynebacterium renale

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Q

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition

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R

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Rhodoccal Pneumonia of FoalsCervical swab of mare.
Transtracheal aspirate.
Nasal discharge swab.
Lung and lymph nodes with lesions.
Rhodococcus equi
Ringworm
Dermatomycoses
Dermatitis, fungal
Plucked hair and skin scrapings sent in dry envelope.Trichophyton spp.
Microsporum spp.

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S

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
SalmonellosisRectally collected feces.
Dead animal: Intestine, liver, spleen, lung & lymph nodes.
Salmonella serovars
Shipping FeverLungPasteurella multocida
Histophilus somni
Mannheimia haemolytica
Arcanobacterium pyogenes
Sleepy Foal DiseaseBrainActinobacillus equuli
SnufflesNasal swabPasteurella multocida
Bordetella bronchiseptica
SporothrichosisAseptically collected pus from unopened lesion.
Abscess aspirate
Lymph node
Wound swab
Sporotrichum schenckii
StranglesFresh pus taken on a swab from an excised abscess.Streptococcus equi
Streptothricosis
Dermatophilosis
Scabs & hair.Dermatophilus congolensis

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T

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
TEME
Infectious Thromboembolic
Meningoencephalitis
BrainHistophilus somni
TetanusRarely needs laboratory confirmation.
Wound tissue collected & maintained in anaerobic condition.
Anaerobic transport swab.
Clostridium tetani
TuberculosisAffected tissue.Mycobacterium spp.
Tuberculosis, BovineMesenteric lymph nodes in calves.
Adults: Lungs and pulmonary lymph nodes.
Mycobacterium bovis
Tularemia
Rabbit Fever
Notify Lab!
Liver, lung, kidney, spleen & lymph nodes with lesions.
Francisella tularensis
Tyzzer's DiseaseUnable to culture.
Culturing tissues can rule out other infections such as Salmonellosis, Sleepy Foal Disease, and Rhodoccus
Clostridium piliformis

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U

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition

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V

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
VibriosisFetal fluids for culture.
Preputial washing or cervical mucous.
Campylobacter fetus

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W

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Wooden TonguePus from fresh, non-discharging abscessActinomyces bovis
Actinobacillus ligniersii

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X

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition

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Y

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition
Yersinia enterocoliticia InfectionFeces
Portions of tissue with necrotic & caseous lesions
Yersinia enterocoliticia
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infection
Pseudotuberculosis
Feces
Portions of tissue with necrotic & caseous lesions
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

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Z

Disease Suspected/ConditionTissue to submitCausative Agent or Agents
Associated With the Condition